Ativan 2mg Lorazepam
- Brand: Generic
- Product Code: SKU005
- Availability: 10000
Lorazepam (initially marketed under the brand names Ativan and Temesta) is a high-potency short-to-intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine drug that has all five intrinsic benzodiazepine effects: anxiolytic, amnesic, sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant, antiemetic and muscle relaxant. Lorazepam is used for the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures including status epilepticus and sedation of hospitalized patients, as well as sedation of aggressive patients.
Lorazepam is considered to be a short-acting drug which, similar to other benzodiazepines, exerts its therapeutic as well as adverse effects via its interaction at benzodiazepine binding sites, which are located on GABAA receptors in the central nervous system. After its introduction in 1977, lorazepam's principal use was in treating anxiety. Among benzodiazepines, lorazepam has a relatively high addictive potential. Lorazepam also has abuse potential; the main types of misuse are for recreational purposes or continued use against medical advice.The sedative-hypnotic and anterograde amnesia properties of lorazepam are sometimes used for criminal purposes.
Long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, dependence, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and cognitive impairments which may not completely reverse after cessation of treatment; however, for most patients, cognitive impairment is not severe. Withdrawal symptoms can range from anxiety and insomnia toseizures and psychosis. Due to tolerance and dependence, lorazepam is recommended for short-term use, 2–4 weeks only. Adverse effects including anterograde amnesia, depression and paradoxical effects such as excitement or worsening of seizures may occur. Children and the elderly are more sensitive to the adverse effects of benzodiazepines. Lorazepam impairs body balance and standing steadiness and is associated with falls and hip fractures in the elderly.
Lorazepam has relatively potent anxiolytic effects and its best-known indication is the short-term management of severe anxiety; the FDA advises against use of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam for longer than 2–4 weeks. It is fast acting, and useful in treating fast onset panic anxiety.
Lorazepam has strong sedative/hypnotic effects, and the duration of clinical effects from a single dose makes it an appropriate choice for the short-term treatment of insomnia, in particular in the presence of severe anxiety. It has a fairly short duration of action (Venable and Aschenbrenner 2009). Withdrawal symptoms, includingrebound insomnia and rebound anxiety, may occur after only seven days' administration of lorazepam.
Lorazepam is sometimes used for individuals receiving mechanical ventilation. However, in critically ill patients, propofol has been found to be superior to lorazepam both in effectiveness and overall cost; as a result, the use of propofol for this indication is now encouraged, whereas the use of lorazepam for this indication is discouraged.
Its relatively potent amnesic effect, with its anxiolytic and sedative effects, makes lorazepam useful as premedication. It is given before a general anaesthetic to reduce the amount of anaesthetic agent required, or before unpleasant awake procedures, such as in dentistry or endoscopies, to reduce anxiety, to increase compliance, and to induce amnesia for the procedure. Oral lorazepam is given 90 to 120 minutes before procedures, and intravenous lorazepam as late as 10 minutes before procedures. Lorazepam is sometimes used as an alternative to midazolam in palliative sedation.In intensive care units lorazepam is sometimes used to produce anxiolysis, hypnosis, and amnesia.
Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for convulsive status epilepticus. Lorazepam is more effective than diazepam in the treatment of status epilepticus. However, phenobarbitol has a superior success rate compared to lorazepam and other drugs, at least in the elderly.
The marked anticonvulsant properties of lorazepam, and its pharmacokinetic profile, make intravenous lorazepam a reliable agent for terminating acute seizures, but it has relatively prolonged sedation after-effects. Oral lorazepam, and other benzodiazepines, have a role in long-term prophylactic treatment of resistant forms of petit mal epilepsy, but not as first-line therapies, mainly because of the development of tolerance to their effects
Lorazepam's anticonvulsant and CNS depressant properties are useful for the treatment and prevention of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In this setting, it is relevant that impaired liver function is not a hazard with lorazepam since lorazepam does not require oxidation, hepatic or otherwise, for its metabolism.
Lorazepam is sometimes used as an alternative to haloperidol when there is the need for rapid sedation of violent or agitated individuals, but haloperidol plus promethazine is preferred due to better effectiveness and due to lorazepam's adverse effects on respiratory function. However, adverse effects such as behavioural disinhibition may make benzodiazepines inappropriate for some acutely psychotic patients. Acute delirium is sometimes treated with lorazepam, but as it can cause paradoxical effects, it is preferably given together with haloperidol.Lorazepam is absorbed relatively slowly if given intramuscularly, a common route in restraint situations.